Accessible Simulations

The alternative input icon indicates in addition to mouse and touch the simulation is keyboard accessible. Students can use a keyboard to navigate and interact with the sim. Simulations with the alternative input icon may contain simple descriptions.

The simple description icon indicates that a simulation contains static descriptions that do not change. Simple descriptions provide useful orientation information such as a scene summary, headings for regions and groups, and labels for interactive sim objects. Simple descriptions can be accessed using screen reader software.

The dynamic description icon indicates that a simulation and its interactions are fully described and change dynamically as the user interacts. A simulation with dynamic description would add dynamic state information and real-time interactive alerts to the set of simple static descriptions already designed. Together static and dynamic descriptions create a richly described interactive experience when using screen reader software.

The sonification icon indicates that a combination of sounds may be added to the simulation to enhance the learning experience. Sounds can be mapped to changing parameters to represent the scientific changes that are happening. Sounds can be more like real-life sounds, or sound effects (e.g. rubbing sound for rubbing a foot on a carpet). Independently or together, these sounds are designed to create a more immersive and meaningful experience.

The prototype icon indicates that the simulation’s listed accessibility features are in their design phase. Everyone is welcome to try the simulations and to provide helpful feedback, keeping in mind that prototypes are in progress, not yet final, and fully tested.

Balões e Eletricidade Estática

  • Features: Alternative Input, Dynamic Description
  • Published Version: Balões e Eletricidade Estática
  • Use um balão de aniversário para explorar conceitos de eletricidade estática, tais como transferência de carga, atração, repulsão e carga induzida.

John Travoltagem

  • Features: Alternative Input, Dynamic Description, Sonification
  • Published Version: John Travoltagem
  • Mexa com o pé e o braço de John Travoltage para descobrir quando ele leva um choque!

Resistência em um Fio

  • Features: Alternative Input, Simple Description
  • Published Version: Resistência em um Fio
  • Observe as alterações da equação e do fio enquanto mexe nos controles deslizantes para resistividade, comprimento e área.

Lei de Coulomb

  • Features: Alternative Input
  • Published Version: Lei de Coulomb
  • Observe changes to electrostatic force as you play with the distance between charges and charge amounts at both macro and atomic scales.

Atrito

  • Features: Alternative Input
  • Published Version: Atrito
  • Grab the Chemistry to play and explore concepts related to friction. Note when using the VoiceOver screen reader with this simulation it is easy to activate VoiceOver's Quick Nav mode while moving the Chemistry book. For the best experience, however, we recommend keeping Quick Nav off.

Moléculas e Luz

  • Features: Alternative Input
  • Published Version: Moléculas e Luz
  • Ajuste o controle deslizante da fonte de luz e comece suas observações de como diferentes moléculas reagem a diferentes fontes de luz. Observe que os elementos interativos neste simulador têm uma descrição simples que pode ser acessada usando um leitor de tela.

Lei de Ohm

  • Features: Alternative Input, Dynamic Description, Sonification
  • Published Version: Lei de Ohm
  • Use os controles deslizantes de tensão e resistência e observe as alterações na equação e no circuito.

Espalhamento de Rutherford

  • Features: Alternative Input, Simple Description
  • Prototype Version: RS 1.1.0-dev.4
  • Libere o fluxo de partículas alfa para iniciar observações no experimento de Rutherford. Observe que esta Sim ainda não possui uma caixa de diálogo Atalhos de Teclado.

Probabilidade Plinko

  • Features: Alternative Input, Simple Description
  • Prototype Version: PP 1.2.0-dev.3
  • Solte as bolas para começar as observações. Observe que esta Sim ainda não possui uma caixa de diálogo Atalhos de Teclado. Descrições simples estão em andamento.

Reagentes, Produtos e Excesso

  • Features: Alternative Input, Simple Description
  • Prototype Version: RPAL 1.2.0-dev.3
  • Construa sanduíches e depois investigue as moléculas para explorar produtos, reagentes e reagentes em excesso. Observe que esta Sim ainda não possui uma caixa de diálogo Atalhos de Teclado e descrições simples estão em andamento

Moléculas e Luz

  • Features: Alternative Input, Dynamic Description, Sonification
  • Prototype Version: MAL 1.5.0-dev.5
  • Sonified Prototype: MAL 1.0.0-dev.62
  • Ajuste o controle deslizante da fonte de luz e comece suas observações sobre como diferentes moléculas reagem a diferentes fontes de luz. Observe que o protótipo sonorizado não possui as descrições mais recentes ou o destaque do foco do teclado.

Molaridade

  • Features: Alternative Input, Simple Description
  • Prototype Version: Molarity 1.4.0-a11yComboBox.4
  • Note que estamos apenas começando com este protótipo. Possui uma caixa combo (combobox) acessível para solutos.

Laboratório do Capacitor: Básico

  • Features: Alternative Input, Simple Description
  • Prototype Version: CLB 1.0.0-dev.14
  • Uma exploração anterior (2015) sobre como tornar uma Sim acessível aconteceu para o Laboratório do Capacitor: Básico (Capacitor Lab Basics). A Sim é navegável pelo teclado com algumas descrições auditivas ao usar o modo 'Formulários' ('Forms') com um leitor de tela. Estamos trabalhando na atualização do conteúdo e das interações, para que a simulação possa ser acessada por um leitor de tela em qualquer modo. Este protótipo foi testado com NVDA e Firefox.

Forças e Movimento: Noções Básicas

  • Features: Alternative Input, Simple Description
  • Prototype Version: FAMB 2.0.0-accessible-instance.2
  • Uma exploração anterior (2015) sobre como tornar uma Sim acessível ocorreu para Forças e Movimento: Noções Básicas (Forces e Motion Basics). Ela possui navegação por teclado e descrições auditivas para a tela Cabo de Guerra ('Net Force') quando o leitor de tela está no modo 'Formulários' ('Forms'). Estamos trabalhando na atualização do conteúdo para que ela possa ser lido pelo leitor de tela em qualquer modo. Notas para a interação principal: Pressione 'Enter' ou 'Barra de espaço' para inserir um grupo de extratores. Uma vez no grupo, use as teclas "Seta" para escolher o extrator que você deseja selecionar. Pressione 'Enter' ou 'Barra de espaço' para selecionar o extrator e passar para a seleção de nós. Use as teclas de 'Setas' para escolher entre diferentes nós. Pressione "Esc" para deixar um grupo de extratores ou nós, "Tab" para sair do grupo e ir para o próximo elemento. Este protótipo foi testado com o NVDA e o Firefox.

Students can already use multiple input methods to interact with the simulation, for example, by using a mouse, trackpad, or touch. The addition of Keyboard Navigation expands options for input methods, allowing input through key presses on the keyboard, and also through assistive devices such as switches, joysticks, alternative keyboards, electronic pointing devices, sip-and-puff systems, and more.

Our design strategy for keyboard navigation and keyboard access is to:

  • use a bold visual focus highlight (common to all sims) that indicates where a student is in their exploration
  • follow known accessible design patterns (see ARIA Authoring Practices) to ensure interactions are as familiar as possible for students who use alternative input
  • provide in-sim guidance for essential interactions in the form of a brief Keyboard Shortcuts dialog

We are designing descriptions that are read aloud by screen reader software. These descriptions provide an additional output mechanism for the simulations. Simple and dynamic descriptions, together, give students access to a non-visual layer that provides a robust text-based mode of the scene layout, navigation, interactions, and dynamic state information as the simulation changes, and dynamic feedback of what is happening (i.e., alerts) during interaction. Sims with descriptions will have already been made keyboard accessible, as well.

Future research will focus on making the descriptions available to more students. At present the descriptions are accessible using screen reader software in the following screen reader-browser combinations:

  • NVDA and Firefox on Windows
  • JAWS and Chrome on Windows
  • VoiceOver and Safari on Mac OS

Using screen reader software students can navigate and read through the simulation at any time using the Arrow keys (i.e., screen reader cursor keys). Students can skim and scan using their screen reader commands (e.g., navigate by regions, by headings, and by interactive elements).

In addition, regardless of which screen reader software is being used, students can use the Tab key and Shift plus the Tab key to navigate forwards and backwards through possible sim interactions.

Two-phase approach to description design

The design of the dynamic descriptions that provide the fully described version of the sim are complex and take the longest to design and test. In efforts to create broader access sooner we have two phases for description design:

  1. In phase 1 we design the simulation’s simple descriptions which provide orientation of the simulation’s layout and names for the interactive elements.
  2. In phase 2 we design the simulation’s dynamic descriptions which include all dynamic state information and the dynamic interactive alerts that describe what is happening.

In our research, we refer to simple descriptions as static descriptions, i.e., descriptions that essentially do not change. Dynamic descriptions and interactive alerts are the descriptions that are designed in phase 2 and create a fully described interactively experience. For a discussion of our research on description, please see our paper on description strategies (Smith, Lewis & Moore, 2017). Based on what we have learned in design research, we are making every effort to release keyboard navigable simulations with their simple static descriptions to provide minimal non-visual access. The fully described dynamic experience requires a longer research, design and development cycle.

Sonification is the use of non-speech sounds (such as musical tones) to convey information. For students accessing the descriptions within the simulations, the use of sonification will complement the text-based descriptions and provide a pathway for conveying information that is continuous in nature – which can be difficult to convey with words. For students visually exploring the simulation, sonification provides a new mode of conveying complex relationships. Sims with sonification are tested using browsers that support web audio. These include:

  • Chrome
  • Firefox
  • Safari