Atomic Interactions

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  • Interaction Potential
  • Atomic Bonding
  • Van der Waals Force
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  • Interaction Potential
  • Atomic Bonding
  • Van der Waals Force
  • Lennard-Jones Potential
  • Pauli Repulsion
  • Atomic Interactions


Explore the interactions between various combinations of two atoms. Observe the total force acting on the atoms or the individual attractive and repulsive forces. Customize the attraction to see how changing the atomic diameter and interaction strength affects the interaction.

Sample Learning Goals

  • Explain how attractive and repulsive forces govern the interaction between atoms.
  • Describe the effect of potential well depth on atomic interactions.
  • Contrast the potential well of a bonded pair of atoms with unbonded pairs.
  • Describe bonds as dynamic and bond lengths as average distances.
Version 1.10

Teacher Tips

Download teacher tips PDF Overview of sim controls, model simplifications, and insights into student thinking ( PDF ).

Teacher-Submitted Activities

Intermolecular Forces and States of Matter - Interactive Lecture Demonstration A gold star indicates high-quality, inquiry-based activities that follow the PhET design guidelines. This contribution was designed by PhET. Ted Clark, Julia Chamberlain UG-Intro Demo Chemistry
States of Matter (Inquiry based) Phase Change and Phase diagrams A gold star indicates high-quality, inquiry-based activities that follow the PhET design guidelines. This contribution was designed by PhET. Trish Loeblein HS
Lab Chemistry
PhET Sims Aligned to the Chemistry Curriculum This contribution was designed by PhET. Julia Chamberlain UG-Intro
Other Chemistry
How do PhET simulations fit in my middle school program? This contribution was designed by PhET. Sarah Borenstein MS Other Biology
Earth Science
MS and HS TEK to Sim Alignment Elyse Zimmer MS
Other Biology
Mapping of PhET and IBDP Physics Jaya Ramchandani HS Other Physics
The Covalent Bond Between Two Atoms Roberto Marrero HS
Introduction to the Covalent Bond Roberto Marrero HS Lab
원자간 상호작용 SIM 사용지침서 이화국(Wha Kuk Lee) HS

Language Download or Run Tips
Albanian All shqip Download Run now Ndërveprime Atomike
Amharic All Amharic Download Run now የአቶሚክ ግንኙነት
Arabic All العربية Download Run now التأثيرات الذرية
Arabic (Saudi Arabia) All العربية (السعودية) Download Run now التفاعلات الذرية
Basque All Euskara Download Run now Elkarrekintza atomikoak
Belarusian All беларускі Download Run now Узаемадзеянні атамаў
Bosnian All Bosanski Download Run now Međuatomska djelovanja
Chinese (Simplified) All 中文 (中国) Download Run now 原子间相互作用
Chinese (Traditional) All 中文 (台灣) Download Run now 原子相互作用
Croatian All hrvatski Download Run now Međudjelovanje atoma
Czech All čeština Download Run now Atomická interakce
Danish All Dansk Download Run now Vekselvirkning mellem atomer
Dutch All Nederlands Download Run now Atomaire interacties
Estonian All Eesti Download Run now Aatomitevaheline vastastikmõju
Finnish All suomi Download Run now Atomien vuorovaikutus
French All français Download Run now Potentiel d'intéraction
Galician All Gallegan Download Run now Interaccións atómicas
Georgian All ქართული Download Run now ატომური ურთიერთქმედება
German All Deutsch Download Run now atomare Wechselwirkung
Greek All Ελληνικά Download Run now Δυναμικό Αλληλεπίδρασης
Hebrew All עברית Download Run now אינטראקציות בין אטומים
Hungarian All magyar Download Run now Atomi kölcsönhatások
Indonesian All Bahasa Indonesia Download Run now Interaksi Atomik
Italian All italiano Download Run now Interazioni atomiche
Japanese All 日本語 Download Run now 原子の相互作用
Kannada All Kannada Download Run now ಪರಮಾಣು ಕ್ರಿಯೆಗಳು
Kazakh All Kazakh Download Run now Атомды әрекеттестіктер
Khmer All Khmer Download Run now អន្តរកម្ម​អាតូម
Korean All 한국어 Download Run now 원자간 상호작용
Kurdish All کوردی Download Run now کارلێککردنی گه‌رده‌کان
Kurdish (Turkey) All Kurdish (Turkey) Download Run now Hevkarîgeriya Gerdîleyan (Atoman)
Lao All Lao Download Run now ການນຳອາຕອມ
Macedonian All македонски Download Run now Интеракција меѓу атомите
Malay All Bahasa Melayu Download Run now Interaksi Atom
Marathi All मराठी Download Run now अण्विक आंतरक्रिया
Norwegian Bokmal All Norsk bokmål Download Run now Atominteraksjoner
Persian All فارسی Download Run now برهم کنش های اتمی
Polish All polski Download Run now Oddziaływanie atomów
Portuguese All português Download Run now Interacções Atómicas
Portuguese (Brazil) All português (Brasil) Download Run now Interações Atômicas
Romanian All română Download Run now Interacţiuni atomice
Russian All русский Download Run now Взаимодействие атомов
Serbian All Српски Download Run now Међуатомска деловања
Slovak All Slovenčina Download Run now Vzájomná interakcia
Slovenian All Slovenščina Download Run now Interakcije med atomi
Spanish All español Download Run now Interacciones Atomicas
Spanish (Mexico) All español (México) Download Run now Interacciones Atomicas
Spanish (Peru) All español (Perú) Download Run now Interacciones Atómicas
Swahili All Swahili Download Run now muingiliano wa atomu
Swedish All svenska Download Run now Atom interaktion
Tamil All Tamil Download Run now அணு இடைச்கயெற்பாடு
Thai All ไทย Download Run now อันตรกิริยาระหว่างอะตอม
Turkish All Türkçe Download Run now Atomik etkilesim
Turkmen All Turkmen Download Run now Atomlaryň özara täsirleri
Uzbek All Uzbek Download Run now Atomic Interactions
Vietnamese All Tiếng Việt Download Run now Tương tác nguyên tử

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Design Team Third-party Libraries Thanks To
  • Wendy Adams
  • John Blanco (developer)
  • Kathy Perkins
  • Noah Podolefsky
  • Carl Wieman
  • Jack Barbera (interviews)
  • Kelly Lancaster (interviews)
  • Piccolo